In anthropology, the “big man” or “big woman” is a term used to describe a leader of a community or tribe whose power and influence extends beyond their immediate social circle.
While the big man is often thought of as a male figure, there are also female big men/women who hold considerable sway within their tribes.
This post will explore the role of the big man/woman in society and examine some of the reasons why they are so influential.
The Origin of the Term Big Man / Big Woman
The term Big Man or Big Woman is used in ethnographies of Melanesia. It was first coined by anthropologist Marilyn Strathern who used it to describe the way in which Melanesian men, and in some cases women, gain social status and influence.
The term “big man” is used to describe a person who has a lot of prestige and influence in a small-scale society. The big man is not the official leader of the group, but he is greatly respected by other members of the community and has a lot of social clout.
Big men are often involved in gift giving and exchange, which is one of the main ways they gain prestige and influence. They also often take on leadership roles in times of crisis, as they are seen as more capable and trustworthy than other members of the community.
Big men are often successful hunters or warriors, and they use their prestige to get people to help them with their projects. For example, a big man might ask other members of the community to help him build a house or clear a field for farming. In return, the big man provides food and protection for his supporters.
The anthropologist Marshall Sahlins describes this type of political system as unstable, with several factions and competing Big Men in “open status competition”. This can lead to conflict and violence both within the factions and between different groupings.
The concept of the Big Man is often used to contrast small-scale societies with more complex societies, such as chiefdoms and states. In these complex societies, there is a formal leader who has more power than the average person, and this leader is supported by a bureaucracy or social elite.
In conclusion the Big Man or Big Woman is a term used in ethnographies of Melanesian societies to describe a person who occupies a position of leadership and prestige and has great influence over the community. His power comes from his ability to accumulate wealth and resources and distribute them among the people. He is also responsible for mediating disputes and ensuring the well-being of his constituents. The Big Man is not a formal leader, but he exercises a great deal of power and authority within his community.
Prestige – a form of social status that is based on respect and admiration.
Influence – the ability to have an impact on the thoughts, feelings, and behaviours of others.
Leadership – the ability to motivate and guide people towards a common goal.
Social Organisation – the way that a society is structured and organised.
Small-Scale Society – a society that is not highly industrialised or urbanised.
Chiefdom – a type of social organisation in which a group of people are led by a chief.
Glossary Terms starting with B
- Behaviourism – A Psychological Perspective of Learning through Conditioning
- Benedict, Ruth: The anthropologist who believed that cultures have personalities
- Big Man / Big Woman – A Person with Prestige and Influence in Melanesian Society
- Bilateral Kinship – Tracing Descent through both the Maternal and Paternal Line
- Biological Anthropology – The relationship between Biology and Sociocultural Systems
- Black Economy – Goods and Services Traded Outside the Formal Financial System
- Black Power – A Political Movement to empower black Americans in the US in the 1960s
- Blood Feud – A Prolonged Series of Retaliatory Attacks between Two Kinship Groups
- Boas, Franz: The Father of American Anthropology
- Body, Anthropology of the – The Study of how the Human Body is shaped by the Environment and Culture
- Bourgeoisie – The Capitalists Who Own the Means of Production
- Bride Capture – The Abduction of Women leading to Forced Marriage
- Brideprice, Bridewealth and Brideservice
Disclosure: Please note that some of the links in this post are affiliate links. When you use one of these affiliate links, the company compensates us. At no additional cost to you, we will earn a commission, which helps us run this blog and keep our in-depth content free of charge for all our readers.